Category: 13th century

fig. 27 – Queen Eadgyth and Otto I


Statue thought to be Queen Eadgyth, great grand-daughter of Alfred, and her husband Otto I, Roman Emperor 936-973
Magdeburg Cathedral
Magdeburg, Germany

fig. 51 – Edward the Elder


Edward the Elder, King Alfred’s son and successor.
13th Century genealogical scroll

theancientwayoflife:~ Sirens. Culture: English…


~ Sirens.
Culture: English
Place of origin: England, Europe
Date: ca. 1250 – 1260
Medium: Pen-and-ink drawings tinted with body color and translucent washes on parchment.



13th Century Crusader, located on the Isle of Skye in Scotland.

historyisntboring: Panthers and leopards in m…


Panthers and leopards in medieval bestiaries

The main point of medieval bestiaries wasn’t realism, especially because most of the people illustrating them had never seen most of the exotic animals depicted on the pages – but each animal still needed to be
instantly identifiable. Because of that, visual codes were developped for each animal.

In most bestiaries, panthers and leopards have many colors (usually seven, frequently considered a perfect number at the time in Europe), sometimes in dots, sometimes in patches or in stripes. Usually, the breath of the animal is also coloured, because it is supposed to attract all animals (except its enemy the dragon, because the panther was seen as a Christ-like figure at the time), as seen on image 2 and 3.


  • Bestiaires du Moyen Âge (Michel Pastoureau)

  • Image 1: Richard de Fournival’s Bestiaire d’amour: France (Paris), 13th-14th century. Bibliothèque Nationale de France

  • Image 2: British Library, Harley MS 3244, Folio 37r. Panther

  • Image 3: Rochester Bestiary, c. 1225-1250

A relief depicting Danish King Valdemar II Vic…

A relief depicting Danish King Valdemar II Victorious (1170-1241) and his wife Berengaria of Portugal

* Ribe Cathedral, Jylland

Source: By Orf3us (Own work) [GFDL ( or CC BY 3.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons

Battle of Lindanise – Dannebrog falls from the…

Battle of Lindanise – Dannebrog falls from the sky

In 1219 Danish King Valdemar II led a crusading fleet to Estonia.His army met Estonian forces at Lindanise – present day Tallinn – and defeated them after a hard fight. According to legend Danish flag, Dannebrog, fell from the sky during a difficult moment of the battle and this gave crusaders new hope.

(C.A. Lorentzen’s painting, 1809)

Albert of Riga (1165-1229)

Albert of Riga (1165-1229)

A German bishop who was one of the leaders of the Baltic crusades. He also established the Military Order of Brothers of the Sword and is – allegedly – a founder of Riga.

Source: By Artifex (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Estonian “king” Lembitu of Lehola (died 1217)

Estonian “king” Lembitu of Lehola (died 1217)

Lembitu was an “elder” from Sackalia county who tried to unite Estonians against crusaders during 1210s.

In 1217 he managed to assemble an army of 6000 men – a formidable figure – but was defeated at the battle of St. Matthew’s Day by Germanic-Livonian forces.

Medieval Livonia (13th century)

Medieval Livonia (13th century)

As mentioned earlier Brothers of the Sword became a Sub Order of Teutonic Knights after the battle of Saule. Since then they were known as Livonian Order.

Fellin = Viljandi

source: By No machine-readable author provided. Termer assumed (based on copyright claims). [GFDL ( or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons