Category: illumination

discardingimages: Hildegard’s vision


Hildegard’s vision

Hildegard von Bingen, Liber Divinorum Operum, Rupertsberg c. 1210-1230

Lucca, Biblioteca Statale, Ms. 1942, fol. 9r



Pisces constellation, from Leiden Aratea (ca. 816)

Leiden Aratea is an illuminated copy of latin version of Phaenomena by Greek didactic poet Aratus, translated and commented by Germanicus. The codex was created in France and dates to around 816. It contains 39 beautiful miniatures of constellations based on examples from classical antiquity, although the stars are not placed correctly in respect to their actual positions in the sky. Leiden Aratea served as a source for Hugo Grotius’ edition of Phaenomena, Syntagma Arateorum, which further inspired the illustrations in Johann Bayer’s Uranometria.

discardingimages: snail ambush Ormesby Psalter…


snail ambush

Ormesby Psalter, England c. 1300

Bodleian Library, MS. Douce 366, fol. 109r

e-codices: Portrayal of the Crucifixion of Chr…


Portrayal of the Crucifixion of Christ in an 11th century manuscript on Flickr.

The scenes portraying Christ on the cross, often referred to also as the Crucifixion of Christ , derive their visual details mainly from the four Gospels. However, these accounts vary considerably in detail and therefore it is not unnatural that different aspects and variations of the scene could be represented.

The standard iconographic composition almost always presents crucified Christ positioned in the middle of the scene where he is shown stripped of his cloths. The figures of Virgin Mary and St. John the Apostle are frequently the only figures included in the composition. Other expended versions of the theme, however, include several other pairs of figures of both historical and symbolic relevance that traditionally appear to the right and the left of the cross. In some variations, the scene presents Christ`s cross erected between those of two thieves who were crucified at the same time with him. In other variations, the scene might include soldiers who cast lots for Christ`s cloths, or the figure of centurion, the Roman army officer, who pierced Christ`s side with a spear and afterward declared him to be the Son of God. Often, on the upper part of the composition, there are small personifications of the Sun and Moon which were eclipsed at the Crucifixion. In some cases, the scene depicts an affixed sign on the cross with the Latin acronym “INRI” ( Iēsus Nazarēnus, Rēx Iūdaeōrum ), which in English reads as “Jesus of Nazareth, The King of the Jews”.

Link to the “Crucifixion of Christ” set.

Link to the “Scenes from the life of Chris” collection.

Manuscript title: Book of Hours

Origin: Flanders, probably Brügge (Belguim)

Period: 15th century

Image source: Neuchâtel, Bibliothèque publique et universitaire de Neuchâtel, A28, p. 95r – Book of Hours ( )

centuriespast:MINIATURIST, FrankishFrankish Ps…


Frankish Psalter
Cathedral Library, Esztergom

lionofchaeronea: Saint Benedict Delivers His R…


Saint Benedict Delivers His Ruling to Saint Maurus and Other Benedictine Monks (c. 1129).  

Illuminated manuscript created at the Monastery of Saint Gilles in Nîmes, France. Unknown artist.

reimaginings-of-the-middle-ages: aenglaland: …



Life of St. Edmund: Vikings Invading England (1130). 

English Romanesque Illuminated Manuscript
New York, Pierpont Morgan Library; Ms. 736, folio 24. Source

mydarlinglittlesunbeam: Hereford Cathedral Lib…


Hereford Cathedral Library – 12th century manuscript picturing a symbolic representation of St Mark

The Four Gospels with Jerome’s preface

openmarginalis: Detail of Graduale oesa, Propr…


Detail of Graduale oesa, Proprium de tempore, pars aestivalis, Ms. WettFm 2, f. 175v, Cologne, Germany, c. 1330-1335 via  e-codices – Virtual Manuscript Library of Switzerland, CC BY-NC

Institutionally Specified Citation Structure:
Aarau, Aargauer Kantonsbibliothek, MsWettFm 2, f. 175v – Graduale oesa, Proprium de tempore, pars aestivalis (

signorformica: The Great Whore of Apocalypse…


The Great Whore of Apocalypse, from the Valcavado Beatus, an illuminated manuscript copied by the monk Oveco in the year 970 AD. Valcavado monastery Palencia, Spain.

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